Websites that use HTTP authentication, can use one of a couple of authentication methods, like Basic or Digest. When first opened, the website returns a 401 message, along with a string that contains the type of authentication and the Realm, and expects from the user to enter their credentials. Here is how to login with Python to a website that uses Digest.
First, verify the authentication type and get the Realm with
curl. The option
-I only fetches the headers:
[[email protected]]$ curl -I http://example.com HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized WWW-Authenticate: Digest realm="Example Realm", nonce="1a7278f234efe7894dfd823", algorithm=MD5, qop="auth"
The significant parts from the output above is that the HTTP
Authentication method is
Digest and that the realm is
Now the Python part:
import urllib2 URL = 'http://example.com' Realm = 'Example Realm' Username = 'marios' Password = '[email protected]' authhandler = urllib2.HTTPDigestAuthHandler() authhandler.add_password(Realm, URL, Username, Password) opener = urllib2.build_opener(authhandler) urllib2.install_opener(opener) page_content = urllib2.urlopen(URL)
page_content variable now contains the contents of the
webpage returned after the authentication, and can be read with
for line in page_content or parsed as